Anatomy A - L
Module Anatomy I

Academic Year 2023/2024 - Teacher: GIUSEPPE MUSUMECI

Expected Learning Outcomes

Acquire the knowledge of the macroscopic and microscopic morphology of the constituent organs of the human body with particular attention to the anatomical-functional aspects of the musculoskeletal and cardio-circulatory system. The student will also have to know the main landmarks, lines and topographic reference areas essential for the study of the surface of the human body as well as the different types of movement in relation to the spatial planes / axes. At the end of the course, the student must be able to know the fundamental concepts that relate the structures of the human body to their functions.

Course Structure

Lectures, theoretical-practical exercises (Human Anatomy Laboratory), in-depth seminars, cooperative teaching (student-teacher) through sharing of didactic material and multimedia supports.

If the teaching is given in a mixed or remote mode, the necessary changes with respect to what was previously stated may be introduced, in order to respect the program envisaged and reported in the syllabus.

Required Prerequisites

Prerequisites as per study plan.

Attendance of Lessons


Risultati de

Detailed Course Content

General: General morphology of the human body. Study criteria of Systematic and Topographical Anatomy. Clinical anatomical terminology. Functional characteristics and constituent organs of the apparatus and systems of the human body. Hollow organs and full organs. Topographical organization of the human body.

Locomotor system: Generalities on the bones. Generalities and classification of the joints. Characteristics and classification of Synarthrosis and Diarthrosis. Types of movement of Diarthrosis. General characteristics of skeletal muscles and classification criteria.

Skull: Neurocranium and splanchnocranium. Anterior, lateral and posterior surface of the skull. Internal and external surface of the cranial vault. Internal and external surface of the skull base, with particular regard to the vascular-nerve holes. Temporo-mandibular joint. Muscles of the head: chewing muscles, hints on mimic muscles and related bands. Hyoid bone.

Vertebral column: structure of the vertebra type; regional characteristics of the vertebrae; spine as a whole and physiological curves. Spinal joints. Cranio-vertebral joints. Muscles and fascias of the neck. Rib cage: ribs, sternum and joints. Chest muscles: intrinsic and thoraco-appendicular muscles. Muscles of the back: spino-appendicular, spino-costal and generalities on the deep muscles of the back.

Pelvis: bones, joints, muscles and bands of the wall of the abdomen and pelvis.

Upper limb: skeleton, joints and muscles.

Lower limb: skeleton, joints and muscles.

Cardiovascular system: Overview of the blood and lymphatic circulatory system. Fetal and postnatal circulation. Structure of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels. Morphological-functional classification of blood and lymphatic vessels. Notes on embryonic development. Mediastinum. Heart: location, size and shape; external configuration, cavities and valves. Structure of the heart walls: fibrous skeleton; musculature of the atria and ventricles; epicardium and endocardium; apparatus for conducting the excitations of the heart. Vascularization and innervation of the heart. Pericardium.

Great circulation: Aorta and its branches. Distribution of the branches of the aorta. Anastomotic circles, with particular reference to the circle of Willis.

Small circulation: Hollow veins and venous return. Constitution of the superior vena cava, deep and superficial veins of the upper limb, jugular veins, dura mater venous sinuses, azigos veins, superior cava-inferior cava collateral circulation. Constitution of the inferior and afferent vena cava, portal vein and roots, deep and superficial veins of the lower limb.

Lymphatic system: Overview. Distribution and structure of the lymphatic vessels. Lymphatic circulation with description of the main collectors. Thyme. Spleen. Lymph nodes with major lymph node stations. Bone marrow.

Regions of particular anatomical - clinical interest: Axillary region. Inguinal - abdominal region. Inguinal-femoral region. Popliteal fossa.

Integumentary system: Structure of the skin and skin appendages (hair, nails, skin glands, mammary gland).

Textbook Information

1. ANATOMIA - FONDAMENTI - Edi-Ermes, Milano.



1. Atlante di Anatomia Umana Sobotta, R. Putz, R. Pabst – Elsevier Masson (3 vol.)

2. Atlante di Anatomia Umana Frank H. Netter – Masson (1 volume)

3. Atlante Virtual Campus G. Anastasi, Ediermes. (3 Vol).


Course Planning

 SubjectsText References
2Integumentary system
3Locomotor system
4Cardiovascular system
5Lymphatic system

Learning Assessment

Learning Assessment Procedures

Oral examination. The student will have to take the exam in the sessions provided for in the exam calendar of the Degree Course. The commission will be composed of the teachers holding the course.

Oral examination

The test begins with the recognition and description of an anatomical model of human bone or joint. An interview follows in which questions concerning at least n. 5 different topics of the program. The test allows to verify: I) the level of knowledge of the subject; II) clarity of presentation; III) the property of medical-scientific language.

For the attribution of the final grade, the following parameters will be taken into account:

Grade 29-30 with honors: the student has an IN-DEPTH knowledge of the subject, has excellent communication skills and masters the medical-scientific language.

Grade 26-28: the student has a GOOD knowledge of the subject and explains the arguments clearly using an appropriate medical-scientific language;

Grade 22-25: the student has a DISCREET knowledge of the subject, even if limited to the main topics and exposes the topics quite clearly with a fair property of language;

Mark 18-21: the student has the MINIMUM knowledge of the subject and exposes the arguments in a sufficiently clear way although the property of language is not very developed;

Failed exam: the student DOES NOT HAVE THE MINIMUM KNOWLEDGE required of the main course contents. The ability to use specific language is very little or no and she is unable to independently apply the acquired knowledge.

Examples of frequently asked questions and / or exercises

• Description of a joint (elbow, knee, scapulo-humeral, radio-carpal, coxo-femoral, etc.).

• Description of a muscle (origin, insertion, action, vascularization and innervation).

• Description of the course of a vessel (artery, capillary, vein).

• Anatomical nomenclature and terms of position.

• Lymphatic drainage of the mammary gland.

• Description of the axillary and inguinal lymph node stations.

• Description of skin and skin appendages.