Physiological and pathological basis

Academic Year 2023/2024 - Teacher: ROSARIO GULINO

Expected Learning Outcomes

The course aims at providing the student with the main notions on the functioning of organs and systyems in the human body. At the end of the course students should have acquired the basic principles governing normal and integrated functions of the body, as well as a good command of the scientific and physiological terminology.

Course Structure

Lectures. Attendance is mandatory

PLEASE NOTE: should remote teaching and examination be necessary in particular conditions, some changes may occur in order to closely adhere to the program outlined in the syllabus

Attendance of Lessons

Attendance is mandatory

Detailed Course Content

Cell membranes: Transport mechanisms, ion channels.

Nervous system General organization of the central, peripheral and autonomic nervous system. Main features of neurons and glia and their functions. Excitable membranes:  rest potential, local potentials, action potential and its propagation. Classification of nerve fibers.

Muscle Structure and organization of skeletal muscle. Excitation-contraction coupling. Twitch, summation and tetanus of skeletal muscle, muscle metabolism, motor unit. Smooth muscle.

Synaptic transmission Electrical and chemical synapses, neuromuscular junction, central synapses. Neurotransmitters.

Sistemi sensoriali Sensory receptors proprio- and esteroceptive sensitivity.

Spinal cord: organization, mono- and polysynaptic reflexes. Spinal shock.

General aspects of the functions of brainstem, cerebellum, basal ganglia and cerebral cortex. Movement disorders: Parkinson's disease.

Cardiovascular system: features of cardiac muscle. Common and specific myocardium, conduction system, ECG. Cardiac cycle. Features of blood vessels, arteries, veins, capillaries. Factors influencing blood flow, laminar and turbulent blood flow. Circulation in arterial, capillary and venous vessels. Regulation of blood pressure.

Respiratory system Superior and inferior airways. Respiratory mechanics, pulmunar ventilation, Surfactant. Gas exchange and transport. Regulation of breathing, central and peripheral chemoceptors

Urinary system Renal functions: glomerular ultrafiltration, tubular functions. Regulation of water-electrolytic and acid-base balance 

Digestive system Hints on motility, secretion and absorption 

Textbook Information

Suggested book:

- Human Physiology: An integrated Approach. By D.U. Silverthorn. Ed. Pearson. 8th edition.

Course Planning

 SubjectsText References
1Please see the programme detailed above

Learning Assessment

Learning Assessment Procedures

The evaluation will be done by oral exams and it will primarily check the ability to handle the logical flow of the discipline, and secondarily the acquisition of detailed contents.

Online oral exams will be possible in particular circumstances, should particular conditions or novel regulations require it.